Six members of staff caught abusing vulnerable residents at a care home by an undercover journalist have been jailed.
Five others were given suspended sentences by a judge at Bristol Crown Court, who condemned the abuse they meted out to disabled patients at the Winterbourne View private hospital, at Hambrook, South Gloucestershire.
The 11 - nine support workers and two nurses - were caught in a BBC Panorama sting by a reporter with a hidden camera posing as a carer.
His footage showed residents being slapped, soaked in water, trapped under chairs, taunted, sworn at and having their hair pulled and eyes poked.
On one occasion three support workers held down a resident while a nurse forced paracetamol into her mouth.
Whistleblower Terry Bryan, a former nurse at the home, went to the BBC with his concerns after his complaints to owner Castlebeck and care watchdogs were ignored.
Journalist Joseph Carey recorded shocking footage during a five-week investigation in February and March last year and the programme was shown the following June.
A serious case review published in August criticised Darlington-based Castlebeck Ltd, which owned the hospital, for putting profits before humanity.
Prosecutor Kerry Barker said care watchdogs failed to act on repeated warnings of "inhumane, cruel and hate-fuelled treatment" of patients.
"The so-called restraint techniques were used to inflict pain, humiliate patients and bully them into compliance with the demands of their carers."
Among the hours of graphic footage played to the court during the sentencing hearing was support worker Wayne Rogers telling a patient: "Do you want me to get a cheese grater and grate your face off?"
Barristers representing the 11 defendants apologised on behalf of their clients but blamed the culture of Castlebeck - calling it a "disease", a "cancer" and a "fog" that had engulfed Winterbourne View.
The court was packed with members of the victims' families and journalists to see Judge Neil Ford QC, The Recorder of Bristol, pass sentence on the 11.
"A culture of ill-treatment developed and, as is often the case, cruelty bred cruelty," he said.
"This culture corrupted and debased, to varying degrees, these defendants, all of whom are of previous good character."
Beverley Dawkins, policy manager for Mencap, issued a statement on behalf of the victims' families.
"In the 21st century, places like Winterbourne View should not exist," she said.
Care and Support minister Norman Lamb said the case revealed the "criminal and inhuman acts some so-called care workers are capable of".
Jason Gardiner, 43, was one of five support workers at the scandal-hit home who escaped immediate jail sentences.
He apologised for his actions outside the court.
"At the time it was misguided, I was trying to do the right thing and I ended up doing wrong and I would apologise for that," he told reporters.
"I've apologised all the way through and I've taken full responsibility for everything I have done."